Cadillac ATS Export Model 2.5L 4-cyl?

Is this the base engine for the export variant of the upcoming Cadillac ATS? (ATS name not final)

4 Cylinder Ecotec LCV Engine


GM Powertrain has updated the excellent 2.4L Ecotec 4 to a new 2.5L Ecotec 4 cylinder.  This engine family comes in a variety of tunes to fit different applications, but generally horsepower is up from 177 hp to 190 hp, while fuel economy may be up as well with this more efficient engine.  The Ecotec family has the smaller displacement 2L turbo models, and the larger displacement now 2.5L normally aspirated models.

Will this be the export engine for the upcoming Cadillac ATS?  Here in the USA a 190 hp engine would not sell well, but in Europe higher relative fuel prices may make a 190 hp ATS an attractive package — a good mix of performance versus fuel economy.  I hope we will also see a small turbo diesel, but time will tell.

The overall US engine range is likely to include a 3.6L flexfuel V6 engine making 300+ hp, a twin turbo 3.6L V6 making 400+ hp, and eventually a hybrid variant.  It may also include a 2L turbo 4 making 280hp, although the case for doing both a turbo 4 and a normally aspirated 6 seems weak.  In fact, I would be tempted to make the turbo 4 the standard engine, and the turbo 6 the ‘V’ engine.  I would still prefer to see a normally aspirated V8 in the mix, but an all-turbo lineup has a nice appeal.

Press clip on the new Ecotec engine:

MILFORD, Mich. – Chevrolet today revealed details of the all-new Ecotec 2.5L four-cylinder engine. More efficient, refined and powerful than its predecessor, the new power plant will be the standard engine in the 2013 Malibu.

The 2.5L is expected to deliver an estimated 190 horsepower (140 kW) and 180 lb.-ft. of torque (250 Nm) – about 12 percent more horsepower and 16 percent more torque than the current Ecotec 2.4L, while offering estimated highway fuel economy of more than 30 mpg (final fuel economy numbers are pending).

The new 2.5L will be available next summer, marking the debut of the all-new Ecotec engine family. Increased efficiency was the top development priority, achieved in part through lower engine friction. It was reduced by an average of 16 percent across the entire speed range, using new technologies such as a variable-displacement oil pump and an actively controlled thermostat. GM proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis techniques were used to develop an all-new combustion system with a higher compression ratio, which also helped boost efficiency.

The new combustion system features improved knock resistance and higher-flowing intake and exhaust ports in the cylinder head, which help increase efficiency, power and torque. The new Ecotec also has increased-authority cam phasing to minimize any compromise between efficiency, performance, emissions and driveability. Like the current generation of technically advanced Ecotec engines, the new 2.5L also features a high-pressure, direct-injection fuel system, dual overhead camshafts with continuously variable valve timing, electronic throttle control and pistons with jet-spray oil cooling.

It is also expected to be one of the quietest and most refined engines in the segment.

“The noise intensity is 40 percent less than our 2.4L direct-injected engine, which was named one of Ward’s 10 Best Engines,” said Mike Anderson, global chief engineer. “Engineers also tuned the 2.5L to deliver more of its torque at lower rpm, giving the Malibu a stronger feel at launch and during on-demand maneuvers, such as passing or accelerating on a freeway entrance ramp.”

Several new features give the 2.5L its segment-challenging refinement:

  • Balance shafts relocated from the block to a module with an integrated oil pump in the oil pan to reduce noise and vibration
  • A stiffer and stronger forged steel crankshaft that enables quieter and smoother engine operation at high rpm
  • Inverted-tooth chains for the camshaft and balance shaft drives for quieter operation
  • A unique, two-piece oil pan design, with an aluminum upper section to provide structural support and a stamped steel lower section to dampen overall noise
  • A cast aluminum bedplate with cast iron bearing cap inserts to help increase dynamic stiffness and reduce noise and vibration
  • Key sound attenuation enhancements such as a structural front engine cover, structural cam cover and lightweight composite acoustic intake manifold cover.

The new Malibu will be sold in nearly 100 countries on six continents. It is available in LS, LT, ECO and LTZ models in North America. Malibu will be built in multiple locations around the globe, including the Fairfax, Kan., and Detroit-Hamtramck assembly plants in the United States. Pricing will be announced later this year.

A tale of two Blown 4.4L V8s – BMW & @Cadillac

The new 2012 BMW M5 uses the twin-scroll, twin-turbo 4.4L V8 from the BMW X5M/X6M SUVs.  In the 2009 BMW trucks this powerplant made 547 hp, in 2010 555 hp, but in the new M5 makes 552 hp.   This all seems to need a bit more sorting.

This engine is the BMW S63, which is a twin-scroll version of the N63 V8.  For the 09 trucks it makes 547 hp at 6000 rpm and 500 lb ft of torque at 1500-5650 rpm.  As in the N63, the turbos are mounted in the V of the engine.  The engines do not appear to use the BMW valvetronic (variable valve timing used instead of a throttle), since there is a perception that it is not needed with a turbocharged vehicle, but are double Vanos systems (variable valve timing,  abbr. from German variable Nockenwellensteuerung, or variable camshaft control).

BMW S63 Engine

BMW fansites were predicting 585-600 hp for the S63 in the M5, so 552 hp is a bit of a surprise.

A blown 4.4L V8 seems familiar — ah yes, that’s what I have in my 2008 Cadillac STS-V!  Of course, mine is supercharged and not a turbo model as in the BMW, and makes only 469hp instead of 552 hp.  The Cadillac uses 12 psi of boost, while the BMW pushes that dial up to 22 psi of boost.  At around 4 % improvement per PSI, a LC3 running 17 psi would make similar numbers, but would run out of the boost range for the custom Eaton M122 supercharger in the Cadillac V8.  (The Stiegemeier snake bite kit does hit 17 psi however…)

[Updated] The BMW N63 makes similar boost pressure to the Cadillac LC3, at 11.6 psi but with a 10:1 compression ratio for the BMW.  The N63 was rated at 400 hp vs the 469 for the 12 psi Cadillac.  Both the N63 and S63 are direct injected engines.  The S63 uses twin-scroll turbos, cross-flow turbo plumbing, lower compression at 9.3:1, and higher boost to build to 552 hp.

The BMW SUVs have launch control, so hopefully the M5 will benefit from this as well.

A bit surprising that BMW stopped short of exceeding the Cadillac CTS-V’s 556 hp.  A shame really, as I would love to see Cadillac turn up the wick on the LSA 6.2L Supercharged V8 in the CTS-V a bit further to 600+ hp.

More on HP: Confusingly the BMW engines are still rated in PS (German: Pferdestärke = horse strength), which is a DIN standard mathematically different from British hp used in the USA.  PS has been replaced by the kilowatt, but is still used.  The 2010 BMW X5M made 414 kW, or 554 hp. is quoting the new M5 at 560PS which converts to 552 hp, but is actually less than the 563 PS in the 2010 X5 M.  Autoblog and Jalopnik are quoting the X5M at 547hp, but that was the 09 model.  I’m sure this will get sorted, hashed, and be more clear presently.

Cadillac Type 51 V8 Engine

The V8 engine was actually invented about 1903 and produced in limited numbers by the French firm DeBion-Bouton. Introduced in 1914 as the standard engine for all 1915 models, Cadillac’s first V8, the Type 51, used a 90-degree layout with three main bearings, L-head combustion chambers and water cooling. With a 3.125-inch bore and 5.125-inch stroke, the engine displaced 314 cubic inches and produced 70 horsepower at 2,400 rpm.

Cadillac’s initial design was a true high speed engine with excellent volumetric efficiency and relatively light reciprocating components. There were countless design improvements over the French engine, most importantly, the first use of a thermostatically controlled cooling system that was eventually adopted by all car manufacturers.

In its first production year, Cadillac put nearly 13,000 vehicles equipped with V8 engines on the road and soon earned world-wide praise for unprecedented smoothness and performance.

The L-Head was on the Ward’s 10 Best Engines of the 20th century list.

1915 Cadillac Type 51

1915 Cadillac Type 51

The Cadillac Type 51 was a large, luxurious automobile. The similar Types 53, 55, 57, 59, and 61 lasted through 1923, when the design was substantially updated as the Type V-63.

All bodies were built by Fisher. The Type 51 was also the first left-hand drive Cadillac—all previous models had been right-hand drive, which was continued as an option. Wheelbases varied in those years, with 122 in (3099 mm) at the low end and 145 in (3683 mm) as the longest.

Cadillac’s new engine raised the bar for performance with the industry’s first V-type, water-cooled eight-cylinder engine. This 314 cubic inch engine produced 70 horsepower (gross) at 2,400 RPM and was the industry’s first major step in development of high-speed, high-compression engines.

1915 Cadillac Type 51 V8

1915 Cadillac Type 51 V8 Survivor